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+% BibTeX `apalike' bibliography style (24-Jan-88 version)
+% Adapted from the `alpha' style, version 0.99a; for BibTeX version 0.99a.
+% Copyright (C) 1988, all rights reserved.
+% Copying of this file is allowed, provided that if you make any changes at all
+% you name it something other than `apalike.bst'.
+% This restriction helps ensure that all copies are identical.
+% Differences between this style and `alpha' are generally heralded by a `%'.
+% The file btxbst.doc has the documentation for alpha.bst.
+%
+% This style should be used with the `apalike' LaTeX style (apalike.sty).
+% \cite's come out like "(Jones, 1986)" in the text but there are no labels
+% in the bibliography, and something like "(1986)" comes out immediately
+% after the author. Author (and editor) names appear as last name, comma,
+% initials. A `year' field is required for every entry, and so is either
+% an author (or in some cases, an editor) field or a key field.
+%
+% Editorial note:
+% Many journals require a style like `apalike', but I strongly, strongly,
+% strongly recommend that you not use it if you have a choice---use something
+% like `plain' instead. Mary-Claire van Leunen (A Handbook for Scholars,
+% Knopf, 1979) argues convincingly that a style like `plain' encourages better
+% writing than one like `apalike'. Furthermore the strongest arguments for
+% using an author-date style like `apalike'---that it's "the most practical"
+% (The Chicago Manual of Style, University of Chicago Press, thirteenth
+% edition, 1982, pages 400--401)---fall flat on their face with the new
+% computer-typesetting technology. For instance page 401 anachronistically
+% states "The chief disadvantage of [a style like `plain'] is that additions
+% or deletions cannot be made after the manuscript is typed without changing
+% numbers in both text references and list." LaTeX sidesteps the disadvantage.
+%
+% History:
+% 15-sep-86 (SK,OP) Original version, by Susan King and Oren Patashnik.
+% 10-nov-86 (OP) Truncated the sort.key$ string to the correct length
+% in bib.sort.order to eliminate error message.
+% 24-jan-88 (OP) Updated for BibTeX version 0.99a, from alpha.bst 0.99a;
+% apalike now sorts by author, then year, then title;
+% THIS `apalike' VERSION DOES NOT WORK WITH BIBTEX 0.98i.
+% Local modifications 10/89 -- Brian Reiser
+
+ENTRY
+ { address
+ author
+ booktitle
+ chapter
+ edition
+ editor
+ howpublished
+ institution
+ journal
+ key
+% month not used in apalike
+ note
+ number
+ organization
+ pages
+ publisher
+ school
+ series
+ title
+ type
+ volume
+ year
+ }
+ {}
+ { label extra.label sort.label }
+
+INTEGERS { output.state before.all mid.sentence after.sentence after.block }
+
+FUNCTION {init.state.consts}
+{ #0 'before.all :=
+ #1 'mid.sentence :=
+ #2 'after.sentence :=
+ #3 'after.block :=
+}
+
+STRINGS { s t }
+
+FUNCTION {output.nonnull}
+{ 's :=
+ output.state mid.sentence =
+ { ", " * write$ }
+ { output.state after.block =
+ { add.period$ write$
+ newline$
+ "\newblock " write$
+ }
+ { output.state before.all =
+ 'write$
+ { add.period$ " " * write$ }
+ if$
+ }
+ if$
+ mid.sentence 'output.state :=
+ }
+ if$
+ s
+}
+
+FUNCTION {eho.special.output.nonnull}
+{ 's :=
+ output.state mid.sentence =
+ { " " * write$ }
+ { output.state after.block =
+ { % add.period$ write$
+ ": " write$
+ newline$
+ "\newblock " write$
+ }
+ { output.state before.all =
+ 'write$
+ { % add.period$ " " * write$
+ ": " * write$
+ }
+ if$
+ }
+ if$
+ mid.sentence 'output.state :=
+ }
+ if$
+ s
+}
+
+FUNCTION {eho.special.output}
+{ duplicate$ empty$
+ 'pop$
+ 'eho.special.output.nonnull
+ if$
+}
+
+%% Added by Eric Ho <eho@word> on Wed Jan 10 20:13:56 1990
+%% A special patch for output.nonnull in book environment.
+
+FUNCTION {eho.output.nonnull}
+{ 's :=
+ output.state mid.sentence =
+ { ": " * write$ }
+ { output.state after.block =
+ { add.period$ write$
+ newline$
+ "\newblock " write$
+ }
+ { output.state before.all =
+ 'write$
+ { add.period$ " " * write$ }
+ if$
+ }
+ if$
+ mid.sentence 'output.state :=
+ }
+ if$
+ s
+}
+
+FUNCTION {output}
+{ duplicate$ empty$
+ 'pop$
+ 'output.nonnull
+ if$
+}
+
+%% Added by Eric Ho <eho@word> on Wed Jan 10 20:13:56 1990
+%% A special patch for output in book environment.
+
+FUNCTION {eho.output}
+{ duplicate$ empty$
+ 'pop$
+ 'eho.output.nonnull
+ if$
+}
+
+FUNCTION {output.check}
+{ 't :=
+ duplicate$ empty$
+ { pop$ "empty " t * " in " * cite$ * warning$ }
+ 'output.nonnull
+ if$
+}
+
+%% Added by Eric Ho <eho@word> on Wed Jan 10 20:13:56 1990
+%% A special patch for output.check in book environment.
+
+FUNCTION {eho.output.check}
+{ 't :=
+ duplicate$ empty$
+ { pop$ "empty " t * " in " * cite$ * warning$ }
+ 'eho.output.nonnull
+ if$
+}
+
+% apalike needs this function because
+% the year has special punctuation;
+% apalike ignores the month
+FUNCTION {output.year.check}
+{ year empty$
+ { "empty year in " cite$ * warning$ }
+ { write$
+ " (" year * extra.label * ")" *
+ mid.sentence 'output.state :=
+ }
+ if$
+}
+
+FUNCTION {output.bibitem}
+{ newline$
+ "\bibitem[" write$
+ label write$
+ "]{" write$
+ cite$ write$
+ "}" write$
+ newline$
+ ""
+ before.all 'output.state :=
+}
+
+FUNCTION {fin.entry}
+{ add.period$
+ write$
+ newline$
+}
+
+FUNCTION {new.block}
+{ output.state before.all =
+ 'skip$
+ { after.block 'output.state := }
+ if$
+}
+
+FUNCTION {new.sentence}
+{ output.state after.block =
+ 'skip$
+ { output.state before.all =
+ 'skip$
+ { after.sentence 'output.state := }
+ if$
+ }
+ if$
+}
+
+FUNCTION {not}
+{ { #0 }
+ { #1 }
+ if$
+}
+
+FUNCTION {and}
+{ 'skip$
+ { pop$ #0 }
+ if$
+}
+
+FUNCTION {or}
+{ { pop$ #1 }
+ 'skip$
+ if$
+}
+
+FUNCTION {new.block.checkb}
+{ empty$
+ swap$ empty$
+ and
+ 'skip$
+ 'new.block
+ if$
+}
+
+FUNCTION {field.or.null}
+{ duplicate$ empty$
+ { pop$ "" }
+ 'skip$
+ if$
+}
+
+FUNCTION {emphasize}
+{ duplicate$ empty$
+ { pop$ "" }
+ { "{\em " swap$ * "}" * }
+ if$
+}
+
+INTEGERS { nameptr namesleft numnames }
+
+FUNCTION {format.names}
+{ 's :=
+ #1 'nameptr :=
+ s num.names$ 'numnames :=
+ numnames 'namesleft :=
+ { namesleft #0 > }
+ { s nameptr "{vv~}{ll}{, jj}{, f.}" format.name$ 't := % last name first
+ nameptr #1 >
+ { namesleft #1 >
+ { ", " * t * }
+ { numnames #2 >
+ { "," * }
+ 'skip$
+ if$
+ t "others" =
+ { " et~al." * }
+ { " \& " * t * } % changed from " and " for names -- BJR 10/5/89
+ if$
+ }
+ if$
+ }
+ 't
+ if$
+ nameptr #1 + 'nameptr :=
+ namesleft #1 - 'namesleft :=
+ }
+ while$
+}
+
+%% Added by Fri Jan 12 19:03:22 1990 on Fri Jan 12 19:03:27 1990
+%% Mainly to make sure that editors have initials before last names.
+
+FUNCTION {eho.format.names}
+{ 's :=
+ #1 'nameptr :=
+ s num.names$ 'numnames :=
+ numnames 'namesleft :=
+ { namesleft #0 > }
+ { s nameptr "{f.} {vv~}{ll}{, jj}" format.name$ 't := %% initials first.
+ nameptr #1 >
+ { namesleft #1 >
+ { ", " * t * }
+ { numnames #2 >
+ { "," * }
+ 'skip$
+ if$
+ t "others" =
+ { " et~al." * }
+ { " \& " * t * } % changed from " and " for names -- BJR 10/5/89
+ if$
+ }
+ if$
+ }
+ 't
+ if$
+ nameptr #1 + 'nameptr :=
+ namesleft #1 - 'namesleft :=
+ }
+ while$
+}
+
+FUNCTION {format.authors}
+{ author empty$
+ { "" }
+ { author format.names }
+ if$
+}
+
+FUNCTION {format.key} % this function is just for apalike
+{ empty$
+ { key field.or.null }
+ { "" }
+ if$
+}
+
+FUNCTION {format.editors}
+{ editor empty$
+ { "" }
+ { editor format.names
+ editor num.names$ #1 >
+ { ", Eds." * } % changed from ", editors" -- BJR 10/5/89
+ { ", Ed." * } % changed from ", editor" -- BJR 10/5/89
+ if$
+ }
+ if$
+}
+
+%% Added by Eric Ho <eho@word> Fri Jan 12 19:11:12 1990
+%% Mainly to call eho.format.names instead of format.names and
+%% to make Eds or Ed to be surrounded by pararentheses instead of preceeded by
+%% a comma.
+
+FUNCTION {eho.format.editors}
+{ editor empty$
+ { "" }
+ { editor eho.format.names
+ editor num.names$ #1 >
+ { " (Eds.)" * } % changed from ", editors" -- BJR 10/5/89
+ { " (Ed.)" * } % changed from ", editor" -- BJR 10/5/89
+ if$
+ }
+ if$
+}
+
+FUNCTION {format.title}
+{ title empty$
+ { "" }
+ { title "t" change.case$ }
+ if$
+}
+
+FUNCTION {n.dashify}
+{ 't :=
+ ""
+ { t empty$ not }
+ { t #1 #1 substring$ "-" =
+ { t #1 #2 substring$ "--" = not
+ { "--" *
+ t #2 global.max$ substring$ 't :=
+ }
+ { { t #1 #1 substring$ "-" = }
+ { "-" *
+ t #2 global.max$ substring$ 't :=
+ }
+ while$
+ }
+ if$
+ }
+ { t #1 #1 substring$ *
+ t #2 global.max$ substring$ 't :=
+ }
+ if$
+ }
+ while$
+}
+
+FUNCTION {format.btitle}
+{ title emphasize
+}
+
+FUNCTION {tie.or.space.connect}
+{ duplicate$ text.length$ #3 <
+ { "~" }
+ { " " }
+ if$
+ swap$ * *
+}
+
+FUNCTION {either.or.check}
+{ empty$
+ 'pop$
+ { "can't use both " swap$ * " fields in " * cite$ * warning$ }
+ if$
+}
+
+FUNCTION {format.bvolume}
+{ volume empty$
+ { "" }
+ { "volume" volume tie.or.space.connect
+ series empty$
+ 'skip$
+ { " des " * series emphasize * }
+ if$
+ "volume and number" number either.or.check
+ }
+ if$
+}
+
+FUNCTION {format.number.series}
+{ volume empty$
+ { number empty$
+ { series field.or.null }
+ { output.state mid.sentence =
+ { "number" }
+ { "Number" }
+ if$
+ number tie.or.space.connect
+ series empty$
+ { "there's a number but no series in " cite$ * warning$ }
+ { " in " * series * }
+ if$
+ }
+ if$
+ }
+ { "" }
+ if$
+}
+
+FUNCTION {format.edition}
+{ edition empty$
+ { "" }
+ { output.state mid.sentence =
+ { edition "l" change.case$ " ├ędition" * }
+ { edition "t" change.case$ " ├ędition" * }
+ if$
+ }
+ if$
+}
+
+INTEGERS { multiresult }
+
+FUNCTION {multi.page.check}
+{ 't :=
+ #0 'multiresult :=
+ { multiresult not
+ t empty$ not
+ and
+ }
+ { t #1 #1 substring$
+ duplicate$ "-" =
+ swap$ duplicate$ "," =
+ swap$ "+" =
+ or or
+ { #1 'multiresult := }
+ { t #2 global.max$ substring$ 't := }
+ if$
+ }
+ while$
+ multiresult
+}
+
+FUNCTION {format.pages}
+{ pages empty$
+ { "" }
+ { pages multi.page.check
+% { "pages" pages n.dashify tie.or.space.connect }
+% { "page" pages tie.or.space.connect }
+ { "(pp.\" pages n.dashify tie.or.space.connect }
+ { "(pp.\" pages tie.or.space.connect }
+ if$
+ ")." *
+ }
+ if$
+}
+
+FUNCTION {format.vol.num.pages}
+{ volume field.or.null
+ number empty$
+ 'skip$
+ { "(" number * ")" * *
+ volume empty$
+ { "there's a number but no volume in " cite$ * warning$ }
+ 'skip$
+ if$
+ }
+ if$
+ pages empty$
+ 'skip$
+ { duplicate$ empty$
+ { pop$ format.pages }
+ { ", " * pages n.dashify * } % changed from ":" for vol,pgs -- BJR 10/5/89
+ if$
+ }
+ if$
+}
+
+FUNCTION {format.chapter.pages}
+{ chapter empty$
+ 'format.pages
+ { type empty$
+ { "chapter" }
+ { type "l" change.case$ }
+ if$
+ chapter tie.or.space.connect
+ pages empty$
+ 'skip$
+ { ", " * format.pages * }
+ if$
+ }
+ if$
+}
+
+FUNCTION {format.in.ed.booktitle}
+{ booktitle empty$
+ { "" }
+ { editor empty$
+ { "In " booktitle emphasize * }
+ { "In " format.editors * ", " * booktitle emphasize * }
+ if$
+ }
+ if$
+}
+
+%% Added by Eric Ho <eho@word> Fri Jan 12 19:17:37 1990
+%% Primarily to call eho.format.editors instead of format.editors.
+
+FUNCTION {eho.format.in.ed.booktitle}
+{ booktitle empty$
+ { "" }
+ { editor empty$
+ { "In " booktitle emphasize * }
+ { "In " eho.format.editors * ", " * booktitle emphasize * }
+ if$
+ }
+ if$
+}
+
+FUNCTION {format.thesis.type}
+{ type empty$
+ 'skip$
+ { pop$
+ type "t" change.case$
+ }
+ if$
+}
+
+FUNCTION {format.tr.number}
+{ type empty$
+ { "Technical Report" }
+ 'type
+ if$
+ number empty$
+ { "t" change.case$ }
+ { number tie.or.space.connect }
+ if$
+}
+
+FUNCTION {format.article.crossref}
+{ "In" % this is for apalike
+ " \cite{" * crossref * "}" *
+}
+
+FUNCTION {format.book.crossref}
+{ volume empty$
+ { "empty volume in " cite$ * "'s crossref of " * crossref * warning$
+ "In "
+ }
+ { "Volume" volume tie.or.space.connect
+ " of " *
+ }
+ if$
+ "\cite{" * crossref * "}" * % this is for apalike
+}
+
+FUNCTION {format.incoll.inproc.crossref}
+{ "In" % this is for apalike
+ " \cite{" * crossref * "}" *
+}
+
+FUNCTION {article}
+{ output.bibitem
+ format.authors "author" output.check
+ author format.key output % special for
+ output.year.check % apalike
+ new.block
+ format.title "title" output.check
+ new.block
+ crossref missing$
+ { journal emphasize "journal" output.check
+ format.vol.num.pages output
+ }
+ { format.article.crossref output.nonnull
+ format.pages output
+ }
+ if$
+ new.block
+ note output
+ fin.entry
+}
+
+%% Modified by Eric Ho <eho@word> on Wed Jan 10 20:30:11 1990
+%% Making it to call eho.output.check instead of output.check and eho.output
+%% instead of output.
+
+FUNCTION {book}
+{ output.bibitem
+ author empty$
+ { format.editors "author and editor" output.check
+ editor format.key output
+ }
+ { format.authors output.nonnull
+ crossref missing$
+ { "author and editor" editor either.or.check }
+ 'skip$
+ if$
+ }
+ if$
+ output.year.check % special for apalike
+ new.block
+ format.btitle "title" output.check
+ crossref missing$
+ { format.bvolume output
+ new.block
+ format.number.series output
+ new.sentence
+% publisher "publisher" output.check
+% address output
+% switched order of publisher and address for book -- BJR 10/5/89
+ address eho.output % Using eho.output instead of output.
+ publisher "publisher" eho.output.check % Using eho.output.check
+ % instead of output.check.
+ }
+ { new.block
+ format.book.crossref output.nonnull
+ }
+ if$
+ format.edition output
+ new.block
+ note output
+ fin.entry
+}
+
+FUNCTION {booklet}
+{ output.bibitem
+ format.authors output
+ author format.key output % special for
+ output.year.check % apalike
+ new.block
+ format.title "title" output.check
+ new.block
+ howpublished output
+ address output
+ new.block
+ note output
+ fin.entry
+}
+
+%% Modified by Eric Ho <eho@word> on Wed Jan 10 20:27:26 1990
+%% Making it to call eho.output.check instead of output.check and eho.output
+%% instead of output.
+
+FUNCTION {inbook}
+{ output.bibitem
+ author empty$
+ { format.editors "author and editor" output.check
+ editor format.key output
+ }
+ { format.authors output.nonnull
+ crossref missing$
+ { "author and editor" editor either.or.check }
+ 'skip$
+ if$
+ }
+ if$
+ output.year.check % special for apalike
+ new.block
+ format.btitle "title" output.check
+ crossref missing$
+ { format.bvolume output
+ format.chapter.pages "chapter and pages" output.check
+ new.block
+ format.number.series output
+ new.sentence
+ publisher "publisher" eho.output.check % Using eho.output.check instead
+ % of output.check.
+ address eho.output % Using eho.output instead of output.
+ }
+ { format.chapter.pages "chapter and pages" output.check
+ new.block
+ format.book.crossref output.nonnull
+ }
+ if$
+ format.edition output
+ new.block
+ note output
+ fin.entry
+}
+
+%% Modified by Eric Ho <eho@word> on Wed Jan 10 20:27:26 1990
+%% Making it to call eho.output.check instead of output.check and eho.output
+%% instead of output. Also modified by Eric Ho <eho@word> on Fri Jan 12
+%% 19:21:59 1990 so as to call eho.format.in.ed.booktitle instead of the old
+%% format.in.ed.booktitle.
+
+FUNCTION {incollection}
+{ output.bibitem
+ format.authors "author" output.check
+ author format.key output % special for
+ output.year.check % apalike
+ new.block
+ format.title "title" output.check
+ new.block
+ crossref missing$
+ { eho.format.in.ed.booktitle "booktitle" output.check
+ % The above line is changed by Eric Ho <eho@word> on Fri Jan 12
+ % 19:20:28 1990 so that it'll call eho.format.in.ed.booktitle instead
+ % of format.in.ed.booktitle.
+
+ format.bvolume output
+ format.number.series output
+ format.chapter.pages eho.special.output
+ new.sentence
+% publisher "publisher" output.check
+% address output
+% switched order of publisher and address for incollection -- BJR 1/3/90
+ address eho.output % Use eho.output instead of output.
+ publisher "publisher" eho.output.check % Use eho.output.check instead
+ % of output.check.
+ format.edition output
+ }
+ { format.incoll.inproc.crossref output.nonnull
+ format.chapter.pages output
+ }
+ if$
+ new.block
+ note output
+ fin.entry
+}
+
+FUNCTION {inproceedings}
+{ output.bibitem
+ format.authors "author" output.check
+ author format.key output % special for
+ output.year.check % apalike
+ new.block
+ format.title "title" output.check
+ new.block
+ crossref missing$
+ { % format.in.ed.booktitle "booktitle" output.check
+ eho.format.in.ed.booktitle "booktitle" output.check
+ format.bvolume output
+ format.number.series output
+ format.pages eho.special.output
+ address eho.special.output % for apalike
+ new.sentence % there's no year
+ organization eho.special.output % here so things
+ publisher eho.special.output % are simpler
+ }
+ { format.incoll.inproc.crossref output.nonnull
+ format.pages output
+ }
+ if$
+ new.block
+ note output
+ fin.entry
+}
+
+FUNCTION {conference} { inproceedings }
+
+FUNCTION {manual}
+{ output.bibitem
+ format.authors output
+ author format.key output % special for
+ output.year.check % apalike
+ new.block
+ format.btitle "title" output.check
+ organization address new.block.checkb
+ organization output
+ address output
+ format.edition output
+ new.block
+ note output
+ fin.entry
+}
+
+FUNCTION {mastersthesis}
+{ output.bibitem
+ format.authors "author" output.check
+ author format.key output % special for
+ output.year.check % apalike
+ new.block
+ format.title "title" output.check
+ new.block
+ "Master's thesis" format.thesis.type output.nonnull
+ school "school" output.check
+ address output
+ new.block
+ note output
+ fin.entry
+}
+
+FUNCTION {misc}
+{ output.bibitem
+ format.authors output
+ author format.key output % special for
+ output.year.check % apalike
+ new.block
+ format.title output
+ new.block
+ howpublished output
+ new.block
+ note output
+ fin.entry
+}
+
+FUNCTION {phdthesis}
+{ output.bibitem
+ format.authors "author" output.check
+ author format.key output % special for
+ output.year.check % apalike
+ new.block
+ format.btitle "title" output.check
+ new.block
+ "PhD thesis" format.thesis.type output.nonnull
+ school "school" output.check
+ address output
+ new.block
+ note output
+ fin.entry
+}
+
+FUNCTION {proceedings}
+{ output.bibitem
+ format.editors output
+ editor format.key output % special for
+ output.year.check % apalike
+ new.block
+ format.btitle "title" output.check
+ format.bvolume output
+ format.number.series output
+ address output % for apalike
+ new.sentence % we always output
+ organization output % a nonempty organization
+ publisher output % here
+ new.block
+ note output
+ fin.entry
+}
+
+FUNCTION {techreport}
+{ output.bibitem
+ format.authors "author" output.check
+ author format.key output % special for
+ output.year.check % apalike
+ new.block
+% format.title "title" output.check
+ format.btitle "title" output.check % change to ital title -- BJR
+ new.block
+ format.tr.number output.nonnull
+ institution "institution" output.check
+ address output
+ new.block
+ note output
+ fin.entry
+}
+
+FUNCTION {unpublished}
+{ output.bibitem
+ format.authors "author" output.check
+ author format.key output % special for
+ output.year.check % apalike
+ new.block
+ format.title "title" output.check
+ new.block
+ note "note" output.check
+ fin.entry
+}
+
+FUNCTION {default.type} { misc }
+
+MACRO {jan} {"January"}
+
+MACRO {feb} {"February"}
+
+MACRO {mar} {"March"}
+
+MACRO {apr} {"April"}
+
+MACRO {may} {"May"}
+
+MACRO {jun} {"June"}
+
+MACRO {jul} {"July"}
+
+MACRO {aug} {"August"}
+
+MACRO {sep} {"September"}
+
+MACRO {oct} {"October"}
+
+MACRO {nov} {"November"}
+
+MACRO {dec} {"December"}
+
+MACRO {acmcs} {"ACM Computing Surveys"}
+
+MACRO {acta} {"Acta Informatica"}
+
+MACRO {cacm} {"Communications of the ACM"}
+
+MACRO {ibmjrd} {"IBM Journal of Research and Development"}
+
+MACRO {ibmsj} {"IBM Systems Journal"}
+
+MACRO {ieeese} {"IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering"}
+
+MACRO {ieeetc} {"IEEE Transactions on Computers"}
+
+MACRO {ieeetcad}
+ {"IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits"}
+
+MACRO {ipl} {"Information Processing Letters"}
+
+MACRO {jacm} {"Journal of the ACM"}
+
+MACRO {jcss} {"Journal of Computer and System Sciences"}
+
+MACRO {scp} {"Science of Computer Programming"}
+
+MACRO {sicomp} {"SIAM Journal on Computing"}
+
+MACRO {tocs} {"ACM Transactions on Computer Systems"}
+
+MACRO {tods} {"ACM Transactions on Database Systems"}
+
+MACRO {tog} {"ACM Transactions on Graphics"}
+
+MACRO {toms} {"ACM Transactions on Mathematical Software"}
+
+MACRO {toois} {"ACM Transactions on Office Information Systems"}
+
+MACRO {toplas} {"ACM Transactions on Programming Languages and Systems"}
+
+MACRO {tcs} {"Theoretical Computer Science"}
+
+READ
+
+FUNCTION {sortify}
+{ purify$
+ "l" change.case$
+}
+
+INTEGERS { len }
+
+FUNCTION {chop.word}
+{ 's :=
+ 'len :=
+ s #1 len substring$ =
+ { s len #1 + global.max$ substring$ }
+ 's
+ if$
+}
+
+% There are three apalike cases: one person (Jones),
+% two (Jones and de~Bruijn), and more (Jones et~al.).
+% This function is much like format.crossref.editors.
+%
+FUNCTION {format.lab.names}
+{ 's :=
+ s #1 "{vv~}{ll}" format.name$
+ s num.names$ duplicate$
+ #2 >
+ { pop$ " et~al." * }
+ { #2 <
+ 'skip$
+ { s #2 "{ff }{vv }{ll}{ jj}" format.name$ "others" =
+ { " et~al." * }
+ { " \& " * s #2 "{vv~}{ll}" format.name$ * } % " and " -- BJR 10/5/89
+ if$
+ }
+ if$
+ }
+ if$
+}
+
+FUNCTION {author.key.label}
+{ author empty$
+ { key empty$
+ { cite$ #1 #3 substring$ }
+ 'key % apalike uses the whole key
+ if$
+ }
+ { author format.lab.names }
+ if$
+}
+
+FUNCTION {author.editor.key.label}
+{ author empty$
+ { editor empty$
+ { key empty$
+ { cite$ #1 #3 substring$ }
+ 'key % apalike uses the whole key
+ if$
+ }
+ { editor format.lab.names }
+ if$
+ }
+ { author format.lab.names }
+ if$
+}
+
+FUNCTION {editor.key.label}
+{ editor empty$
+ { key empty$
+ { cite$ #1 #3 substring$ }
+ 'key % apalike uses the whole key, no organization
+ if$
+ }
+ { editor format.lab.names }
+ if$
+}
+
+FUNCTION {calc.label}
+{ type$ "book" =
+ type$ "inbook" =
+ or
+ 'author.editor.key.label
+ { type$ "proceedings" =
+ 'editor.key.label % apalike ignores organization
+ 'author.key.label % for labeling and sorting
+ if$
+ }
+ if$
+ ", " % these three lines are
+ * % for apalike, which
+ year field.or.null purify$ #-1 #4 substring$ % uses all four digits
+ *
+ 'label :=
+}
+
+FUNCTION {sort.format.names}
+{ 's :=
+ #1 'nameptr :=
+ ""
+ s num.names$ 'numnames :=
+ numnames 'namesleft :=
+ { namesleft #0 > }
+ { nameptr #1 >
+ { " " * }
+ 'skip$
+ if$ % apalike uses initials
+ s nameptr "{vv{ } }{ll{ }}{ f{ }}{ jj{ }}" format.name$ 't := % <= here
+ nameptr numnames = t "others" = and
+ { "et al" * }
+ { t sortify * }
+ if$
+ nameptr #1 + 'nameptr :=
+ namesleft #1 - 'namesleft :=
+ }
+ while$
+}
+
+FUNCTION {sort.format.title}
+{ 't :=
+ "A " #2
+ "An " #3
+ "The " #4 t chop.word
+ chop.word
+ chop.word
+ sortify
+ #1 global.max$ substring$
+}
+
+FUNCTION {author.sort}
+{ author empty$
+ { key empty$
+ { "to sort, need author or key in " cite$ * warning$
+ ""
+ }
+ { key sortify }
+ if$
+ }
+ { author sort.format.names }
+ if$
+}
+
+FUNCTION {author.editor.sort}
+{ author empty$
+ { editor empty$
+ { key empty$
+ { "to sort, need author, editor, or key in " cite$ * warning$
+ ""
+ }
+ { key sortify }
+ if$
+ }
+ { editor sort.format.names }
+ if$
+ }
+ { author sort.format.names }
+ if$
+}
+
+FUNCTION {editor.sort}
+{ editor empty$
+ { key empty$
+ { "to sort, need editor or key in " cite$ * warning$
+ ""
+ }
+ { key sortify }
+ if$
+ }
+ { editor sort.format.names }
+ if$
+}
+
+% apalike uses two sorting passes; the first one sets the
+% labels so that the `a's, `b's, etc. can be computed;
+% the second pass puts the references in "correct" order.
+% The presort function is for the first pass. It computes
+% label, sort.label, and title, and then concatenates.
+FUNCTION {presort}
+{ calc.label
+ label sortify
+ " "
+ *
+ type$ "book" =
+ type$ "inbook" =
+ or
+ 'author.editor.sort
+ { type$ "proceedings" =
+ 'editor.sort
+ 'author.sort
+ if$
+ }
+ if$
+ #1 entry.max$ substring$ % for
+ 'sort.label := % apalike
+ sort.label % style
+ *
+ " "
+ *
+ title field.or.null
+ sort.format.title
+ *
+ #1 entry.max$ substring$
+ 'sort.key$ :=
+}
+
+ITERATE {presort}
+
+SORT % by label, sort.label, title---for final label calculation
+
+STRINGS { last.label next.extra } % apalike labels are only for the text;
+
+INTEGERS { last.extra.num } % there are none in the bibliography
+
+FUNCTION {initialize.extra.label.stuff} % and hence there is no `longest.label'
+{ #0 int.to.chr$ 'last.label :=
+ "" 'next.extra :=
+ #0 'last.extra.num :=
+}
+
+FUNCTION {forward.pass}
+{ last.label label =
+ { last.extra.num #1 + 'last.extra.num :=
+ last.extra.num int.to.chr$ 'extra.label :=
+ }
+ { "a" chr.to.int$ 'last.extra.num :=
+ "" 'extra.label :=
+ label 'last.label :=
+ }
+ if$
+}
+
+FUNCTION {reverse.pass}
+{ next.extra "b" =
+ { "a" 'extra.label := }
+ 'skip$
+ if$
+ label extra.label * 'label :=
+ extra.label 'next.extra :=
+}
+
+EXECUTE {initialize.extra.label.stuff}
+
+ITERATE {forward.pass}
+
+REVERSE {reverse.pass}
+
+% Now that the label is right we sort for real,
+% on sort.label then year then title. This is
+% for the second sorting pass.
+FUNCTION {bib.sort.order}
+{ sort.label
+ " "
+ *
+ year field.or.null sortify
+ *
+ " "
+ *
+ title field.or.null
+ sort.format.title
+ *
+ #1 entry.max$ substring$
+ 'sort.key$ :=
+}
+
+ITERATE {bib.sort.order}
+
+SORT % by sort.label, year, title---giving final bibliography order
+
+FUNCTION {begin.bib}
+{ preamble$ empty$ % no \etalchar in apalike
+ 'skip$
+ { preamble$ write$ newline$ }
+ if$
+ "\begin{thebibliography}{}" write$ newline$ % no labels in apalike
+}
+
+EXECUTE {begin.bib}
+
+EXECUTE {init.state.consts}
+
+ITERATE {call.type$}
+
+FUNCTION {end.bib}
+{ newline$
+ "\end{thebibliography}" write$ newline$
+}
+
+EXECUTE {end.bib}